The Northeast Pacific coastal ocean, as a typical river-influenced coastal upwelling system, is characterized by significant variability of sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, <200 to >1000 μatm). This study reviewed the pCO2 variability and its underlying controlling mechanism in this highly dynamic region by bringing together previous scientific findings and historical data. The large pCO2 variability reflects the complex interactions between physical processes (riverine input and coastal upwelling) and the biological responses to the nutrient transportation associated with these physical processes, while temperature and air-sea gas exchange play a minor role in affecting pCO2. Both the river water and upwelled subsurface water are characterized by higher concentrations of pCO2 and nutrients when compared to the coastal surface water. The presence of high chlorophyll-a and low pCO2 in river plumes and areas adjacent to upwelling locations showed the intense biological CO2 uptake. The influences of riverine input and coastal upwelling thus mainly depend on the competing effect of high background pCO2 of river water and upwelled subsurface water vs. the biological dropdown of pCO2 resulting from the riverine- and upwelling-associated nutrient supplies. The strength of upwelling-favorable wind plays an important role in the pCO2 variability by affecting the intensity of coastal upwelling, with stronger wind speed causing more intense upwelling. The long-term pCO2 increasing rate in the Northeast Pacific coast is observed to be lower than that in the North Pacific open ocean.
Ocean carbon from space: current status and priorities for the next decade.
Brewin, J.W., Sathyendranathb, S., Kulk, G., Riod, M., Conchad, J.A., Bell, T.G., Bracherf, A., Fichoth, C., Frölicheri, T.L., Galí, M., Hansell, D.A., Kostadinov, T.S., Mitchelln, C., Neeley, A.M., Organelli, E., Richardson, K., Rousseaux, C., Shen, F., Stramski, D., Tzortziou, M., Watson, A.J., Addey, C.I., Bellacicco, M., Cetini, I., Dall’Olmo, G., Frouin, R., Hauck, J., Hieronymi, M., Hu, C., Ibello, V., Kong, C.E., Kova, Z., Laine, M., Lauderdale, J., Lavender, S., Livanou, E., Llort, J., Russell, J.L., Salisbury, J., Sanders, R., Shutler, J.D., Sun, X., Taboada, F.G., Tilstone, G., Wei, X., Woolf, D.K. (2023). (Earth-Science Reviews). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2023.104386
Anthropogenic carbon penetration and distribution in the northern South China Sea basin.
Roberts, E., Dai, M.H., Smethie Jr, W.M, Shen, S.P., Guo, X.H., Gorman, E., Guo, L.G, Wang, L.F., Xu, Y., Addey, C.I. (ACS Earth and Space Chemistry). In preparation